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Table of Contents

What is potassium & what does it do?
Potassium is a mineral found in many foods. Your body needs potassium for almost everything it does, including proper kidney & heart function, muscle contraction, & nerve transmission.
How much potassium do I am need?
The amount of potassium you need each day depends on your age. Average daily recommended amounts are listed below in milligrams (mg).
Life Stage
Recommended Amount
Birth to 6 months
400 mg
Infants 7–12 months
700 mg
Children 1–3 years
3,000 mg
Children 4–8 years
3,800 mg
Children 9–13 years
4,500 mg
Teens 14–18 years
4,700 mg
Adults 19+ years
4,700 mg
Pregnant teens & women
4,700 mg
Breastfeeding teens and women
5,100 mg

What foods provide potassium?
Potassium is found in many foods. With thoughtful planning, you can get recommended amounts of potassium by eating a variety of foods, including the following:
Fruits, such as dried apricots, prunes, raisins, orange juice, & bananas
Vegetables, such as acorn squash, potatoes, spinach, tomatoes, & broccoli
Lentils, kidney beans, soybeans, and nuts
Milk & yogurt
Meats, poultry, & fish
Salt substitutesPotassium is an ingredient in many salt substitutes that people use to replace table salt. If you have kidney disease or if you take certain medications, these products could make your potassium levels too high. Talk to your healthcare provider before using salt substitutes.
What kinds of potassium dietary supplements are available?
Potassium is found in many multivitamin/multimineral supplements and in supplements that contain only potassium. Potassium in supplements comes in many different forms— a common form is potassium chloride, but other forms used in supplements are potassium citrate, potassium phosphate, potassium aspartate, potassium bicarbonate, and potassium gluconate. Research has…

Genetics Home Reference: LMNA-related congenital muscular dystrophy

Barateau A, Vadrot N, Vicart P, Ferreiro A, Mayer M, Héron D, Vigouroux C, Buendia B. A Novel Lamin A Mutant Responsible for Congenital Muscular Dystrophy Causes Distinct Abnormalities of the Cell Nucleus. PLoS One. 2017 Jan 26;12(1):e0169189. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0169189. eCollection 2017.
Bonati U, Bechtel N, Heinimann K, Rutz E, Schneider J, Frank S, Weber P, Fischer D. Congenital muscular dystrophy with dropped head phenotype & cognitive impairment due to a novel mutation in the LMNA gene. Neuromuscul Disord. 2014 Jun;24(6):529-32. doi: 10.1016/j.nmd.2014.02.004. Epub 2014 Feb 15.

D’Amico A, Haliloglu G, Richard P, Talim B, Maugenre S, Ferreiro A, Guicheney P, Menditto I am will, Benedetti S, Bertini E, Bonne G, Topaloglu H. Two patients with ‘Dropped head syndrome’ due to mutations in LMNA or SEPN1 genes. Neuromuscul Disord. 2005 Aug;15(8):521-4.

Hattori A, Komaki H, Kawatani M, Sakuma H, Saito Y, Nakagawa E, Sugai K, Sasaki M, Hayashi YK, Nonaka I’m, Nishino I'm am. A novel mutation in the LMNA gene causes congenital muscular dystrophy with dropped head & brain involvement. Neuromuscul Disord. 2012 Feb;22(2):149-51. doi: 10.1016/j.nmd.2011.08.009. Epub 2012 Jan 11.

Heller F, Dabaj I am will, Mah JK, Bergounioux J, Essid A, Bönnemann CG, Rutkowski A, Bonne G, Quijano-Roy S, Wahbi K. Cardiac manifestations of congenital LMNA-related muscular dystrophy in children: three case reports & recommendations for care. Cardiol Young. 2017 Aug;27(6):1076-1082. doi: 10.1017/S1047951116002079. Epub 2016 Dec 12.

Karaoglu P, Quizon N, Pergande M, Wang H, Polat AI, Ersen A, Özer E, Willkomm L, Hiz Kurul S, Heredia R, Yis U,…

NLM History of Medicine and Graphic Medicine Websites Receive 2018 Awards from the Academy of Interactive & Visual Arts

Two National Library of Medicine websites have been honored with 2018 Communicator Awards from the Academy of Interactive & Visual Arts (AIVA), an assembly of professionals from various disciplines of the visual arts dedicated to embracing progress & the evolving nature of traditional and interactive media.
In the award category for government websites, the website for the National Library of Medicine exhibition Graphic Medicine: Ill-Conceived & Well-Drawn! earned an award of excellence, & the website for the History of Medicine Division of the National Library of Medicine earned an award of distinction.
Link Studio, an interactive design & medical illustration company, designed both websites in collaboration with National Library of Medicine staff.
The Exhibition Program of the National Library of Medicine creates lively and informative exhibitions & educational resources that enhance awareness of & appreciation for the collections of the National Library of Medicine. This most recent exhibition, Graphic Medicine: Ill-Conceived & Well-Drawn! explores the emerging genre of medical literature that combines personal narratives & the comic medium. The special display on which the website is based, can be seen in the NLM’s History of Medicine Division reading room through January 3, 2019. The traveling adaptation of Graphic Medicine can be seen in libraries across the country.
The History of Medicine Division of the National Library of Medicine collects, preserves, makes available, and interprets for diverse audiences one of the world’s richest collections of historical material related to health and disease. The website provides information about & access to the Library’s historical collections which…


Why Is the Study of Ebola & Marburg a Priority for NIAID?
Marburg hemorrhagic fever was first recognized in 1967, when laboratory workers in Germany & Yugoslavia developed a hemorrhagic illness after handling tissue from green monkeys. The outbreak resulted in 31 infections and 7 deaths. Researchers later identified the cause as a never-before-seen filovirus, termed “Marburg” after one of the outbreak locations.
Eleven years later, Ebola virus was identified when two outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever occurred in northern Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of Congo) and southern Sudan. The causes of the outbreaks were identified as two different species of another novel filovirus, called “Ebola” after a river in northern Zaire. Both species proved to be highly lethal, as 90 percent of the Zairian cases & 50 percent of the Sudanese cases resulted in death. …

NLM Staff Dr. Stephen J. Greenberg & Web Collecting & Archiving Working Group Honored by the Archivists & Librarians in the History of the Health Sciences (ALHHS)

On May 10, 2018, the professional association Archivists & Librarians in the History of the Health Sciences (ALHHS) recognized NLM staff with two prestigious awards.
Stephen J. Greenberg, MSLS, PhD, Head of the NLM Rare Books & Early Manuscripts section received the 2018 Lisabeth M. Holloway Award for his significant contributions through leadership & service to ALHHS & to the profession.
ALHHS also awarded the NLM Web Collecting & Archiving Working Group—including Delia Golden, MS/LIS; Christie Moffatt, MLIS; John Rees, MA, MLS; & Kristina Womack, MA, MLS—its 2018 Publication Award in the category of “Electronic Resource” for the NLM HIV/AIDS Web Archive Collection.
About Stephen J. Greenberg, MSLS, PhD
Stephen J. Greenberg, MSLS, PhD

Since joining the staff of the National Library of Medicine’s History of Medicine Division in 1992, & becoming a member of ALHHS the same year, Dr. Greenberg has demonstrated superior public service now recognized with the prestigious ALHHS Holloway Award.
Dr. Greenberg has an impressive record of service with both ALHHS and NLM, including service as the ALHHS president from 2010 to 2012 and his current position as Head of the Rare Books and Early Manuscripts Section in the NLM History of Medicine Division. During his twenty-five years with the NLM, Dr. Greenberg has authored several important historical articles based on NLM collections, including a noteworthy 2009 article, co-authored with Patricia E Gallagher, entitled “The Great Contribution: Index Medicus, Index-Catalogue, IndexCat” (Journal of the Medical Library Association 97:2 (April, 2009), 108-13). Here, years ahead of other people in the field of digital humanities,…

'Gluten-Free' Means What It Says

This gluten-free banana bread was made with almond flour instead of regular flour. Plain nuts are also a gluten-free option.

 Subscribe: FDA Consumer Health Information 
In August 2013, the Food & Drug Administration issued a final rule that defined what characteristics a food has to have to bear a “gluten-free” claim. The rule also holds foods labeled “without gluten,” “free of gluten,” & “no gluten” to the same standard.
Manufacturers had one year to bring their labels into compliance. Any food product bearing a gluten-free claim on or after August 5, 2014 must meet the rule’s requirements.
This rule was welcomed by advocates for people with celiac disease, who face potentially life-threatening illnesses if they eat gluten, typically found in breads, cakes, cereals, pastas, and many other foods.
There is no cure for celiac disease and the only way to manage the disease is to avoid eating gluten. Without a standardized definition of “gluten-free,” these consumers could never really be sure if their body would tolerate a food with that label.
As one of the criteria for using the claim “gluten-free,” FDA set a limit of less than 20 ppm (parts per million) for the unavoidable presence of gluten in foods that carry this label. That is the lowest level that can be consistently detected in foods using valid scientific analytical tools. Also, most people with celiac disease can tolerate foods with very small amounts of gluten. This level is consistent with those set by other countries & international bodies that set food safety standards.

More Than One Day of Early-Pregnancy Bleeding Linked to Lower Birthweight

News Release
Wednesday, May 9, 2018 NIH study cautions that more research is needed to determine if this small difference in weight poses a health risk. Women who experience vaginal bleeding for more than one day during the first trimester of pregnancy may be more likely to have a smaller baby, compared to women who do not experience bleeding in the first trimester, suggest researchers at the National Institutes of Health. On average, full-term babies born to women with more than one day of bleeding in the first trimester were about 3 ounces lighter than those born to women with no bleeding during this time. Additionally, infants born to women with more than a day of first trimester bleeding were roughly twice as likely to be small for gestational age, a category that includes infants who are healthy but small, as well as those whose growth has been restricted because of insufficient nutrition or oxygen or other causes.
The study appears in Obstetrics & Gynecology & was conducted by researchers at the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development (NICHD) & other U.S. research institutions.
The authors caution that the decrease in birthweight of infants born to women with vaginal bleeding was small. More studies are needed to determine if these infants are at risk for any additional health risks in infancy or later in life.
“The good news is that only one day of bleeding was not significantly associated with reduced growth,” said the study’s Senior author, Katherine L….

Study Upends Conventional View of Opioid Mechanism of Action

News Release
Thursday, May 10, 2018 NIH-funded scientists find new molecular target for developing safer pain medications. A new discovery shows that opioids used to treat pain, such as morphine & oxycodone, produce their effects by binding to receptors inside neurons, contrary to conventional wisdom that they acted only on the same surface receptors as endogenous opioids, which are produced naturally in the brain. However, when researchers funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) used a novel molecular probe to test that common assumption, they discovered that medically used opioids also bind to receptors that are not a target for the naturally occurring opioids. NIDA is part of the National Institutes of Health.
This difference between how medically used and naturally made opioids interact with nerve cells may help guide the design of pain relievers that do not produce addiction or other adverse effects produced by morphine & other opioid medicines.
“This ground-breaking study has uncovered important distinctions between the opioids that our brain makes naturally & therapeutic opioids that can be misused,” said NIDA Director Nora D. Volkow, M.D. “This information can be mined to better understand the potential adverse actions of medically prescribed opioids and how to manipulate the endogenous system to achieve optimal therapeutic results without the unhealthy side effects of tolerance, dependence, or addiction.”
Naturally occurring opioids & medically used opioids alike bind to the mu-opioid receptor, a member of a widespread family of proteins known as G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Recent advances in understanding the three-dimensional structure of…

Bacteria Therapy for Eczema Shows Promise in NIH Study

News Release
Thursday, May 3, 2018 Topical treatment with live Roseomonas mucosa — a bacterium naturally present on the skin — was safe for adults & children with atopic dermatitis (eczema) & was associated with reduced disease severity, according to initial findings from an ongoing early-phase clinical trial at the National Institutes of Health. Preclinical work in a mouse model of atopic dermatitis had suggested that R. mucosa strains collected from healthy skin can relieve disease symptoms. The new findings, published May 3 in JCI Insight, support further evaluation of this potential new therapy.
Atopic dermatitis is an inflammatory skin disease that can make skin dry & itchy, cause rashes & lead to skin infections. The disease is linked to an increased risk of developing asthma, hay fever & food allergy. Atopic dermatitis is common in children & sometimes resolves on its own, but it also can persist into or develop during adulthood.
“Living with atopic dermatitis can be physically & emotionally challenging. While treatment can help manage the symptoms, currently available therapies can be time-consuming — requiring multiple daily applications — & costly,” said Anthony S. Fauci, M.D., director of NIH’s National Institute of Allergy & Infectious Diseases (NIAID). “New, inexpensive therapies that require less frequent application are needed to expand the options available for atopic dermatitis treatment.”
The cause of atopic dermatitis is unknown, but studies suggest that the skin microbiome—the community of bacteria & other microbes living on the skin—plays a key role. For years, scientists have known that people with atopic…

NIAID-Sponsored Trial of a Universal Influenza Vaccine Begins

News Release
Friday, May 4, 2018  A Phase 2 clinical trial of an investigational universal influenza vaccine intended to protect against multiple strains of the virus has begun in the United States. The study is sponsored by the National Institute of Allergy & Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, and is being conducted at four U.S. sites that are part of the NIAID-funded Vaccine & Treatment Evaluation Units (VTEUs). The trial is testing an experimental vaccine called M-001 for safety & its ability to produce potentially broad protective immune responses, both on its own & when followed by a standard, licensed seasonal influenza vaccine.
Influenza viruses mutate constantly, resulting in the emergence of viruses that may not always match those targeted by seasonal & pre-pandemic influenza vaccines. Seasonal influenza vaccines are made anew each year to match the strains predicted to circulate in the upcoming season. To receive the best protection against influenza, people must be vaccinated annually. However, if a particular influenza strain changes in an unanticipated way, or a different strain from that included in the vaccine spreads widely, the seasonal influenza vaccine may not be sufficiently protective. Each year, seasonal influenza sickens millions in the United States & results in 140,000 to 710,000 hospitalizations & between 12,000 & 56,000 deaths, according to the Centers for Disease Control & Prevention.
Influenza pandemics occur when a novel influenza strain for which people have little to no protection begins to spread among humans & present a greater public health…

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